Month: November 2009


Gossip is an age-old way of sharing news about the happenings of a community and those within it.  Evolutionary psychology suggests that gossip promotes bonding and affiliation within a group.  Generally, though, gossip belongs to the dark side of communication, used to enhance the gossiper’s status at the cost of another’s reputation. By the time … Continued

Effects of bullying and exclusion

School bullying has the potential to leave its targets with a wide range variety of long-term effects.   Research from Carlisle and Rofes found that the targets of bullying almost universally link their childhood bullying to the difficulties they now have in relationships, particularly in making friendships, belonging to groups, dealing with authority figures, facing … Continued

When does bullying begin? Sooner than you might think.

At we find that children are exposed to bullying  as soon as a child enters kindergarten or first grade.  In fact, more students feel victimized and excluded in the early grades than at any other point of their school career.  (Over 22% according to Kochenderfer & Ladd’s study of kindergarteners in the Midwest.)  Even more … Continued